Lambada Blend Personality
Hypnotizing dark chocolate aroma. A slightly frothy, mellow coffee that gradually turns bold with a hint of smoke through the finish. Sensationally smooth medium roast blend
A Touch of Sweetness
Turn this pleasurable black coffee into a balanced bittersweet beverage with a bit of sugar or honey. Pour some milk for light and easy caffé latte
Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B6, Folic acid, Pantothenic acid, Vitamin C
Benefits of functional elements
Essential vitamins are among the vital nutrients to nourish your body as well as providing you with much needed energy for a more healthy and balanced lifestyle. Fat soluble vitamins can be stored in the body but water soluble vitamins must be replenish as they’re excreted from your body
- Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin
- Involves in cellular division and differentiation
- Maintain good eye health and clear vision
- An anti-oxidant to protect your skin health
- Keep mucous membranes healthy
- Involves in formation of white blood cells and strengthens immune system
- Accelerates wound healing
All B complex vitamins are water-soluble, with the exception of vitamin B12, your body doesn’t store the excess vitamins for later use . They’re needed by your body to maintain the health of your skin, hair, eyes, and liver
- Helps metabolism of carbohydrates and branched amino acids, which are used to produce energy
- Supports and strengthens the immune system
- Supports the nervous system and the brain for proper functions
- Important in the digestion process, especially to activate the enzymes function
- Interacts with co-enzymes to control metabolism of food
- An antioxidant; protects the cells and DNA from free radical damages
- Involves in several metabolisms;
- carbohydrates, fats, and proteins which are used to produce energy
- production of antibody
- red blood cells
- Helps your body to convert vitamin B6 and folate
- Involves in metabolisms of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins which are used to produce energy
- Involves in the productions several hormones
- A vital nutrient that involves in several key functions;
- production of neurotransmitters for optimal brain function
- work together with vitamin B12 in production of red blood cells
- production of antibodies
- Works concurrently with vitamins B12 and folate to boost cardiovascular health
- Balances the level of potassium and sodium
- Optimizes the absorption of Vitamin B12
- Is required for more than 60 enzymes to function properly
- An intrinsic nutrient for proper brain function and health including mental and emotional health
- A vital component of DNA and RNA syntheses
- Folic acid also works closely with vitamin B12 to help make red blood cells
- Collaborate with vitamin B12 and iron to balance the level of the three nutrients in your body
- Helps metabolisms of fats and carbohydrate for energy
- Involves in synthesis of cholesterol
- Essential in the development of red blood cells
- Essential in the development of stress related hormone
- Helps the body to utilize vitamin B2
- Helps to maintain the digestive system health
- A water-soluble vitamin
- An anti-oxidant especially for dermal protection
- Protects the skin from photo damage, UV related DNA damage and lipid oxidation
- Interact with Vitamin E to increase UV protection
- Vital to form hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline, important co-factors to regenerate collagen
- Important for tissue repair and maintainence
- Assisting in faster wound healing process
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- Health Note
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Scientific Information (Did You Know?)
A. Clinical Studies of Vitamins
Sodium ascorbate (Vitamin C)
Sodium ascorbate (Vitamin C)
Sodium ascorbate is one of a number of mineral salts of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). As the sodium salt of ascorbic acid, it is known as a mineral ascorbate. It has not been demonstrated to be more bioavailable than any other form of vitamin C supplement. Exposure to oxygen, prolonged heating in the presence of oxygen, contact with minerals (iron and copper) and exposure to light are destructive to the ascorbic acid content of foods.
Vitamin C (or ascorbic acid) is required in several reactions involved in body processes, such as collagen synthesis, carnitine synthesis, tyroxine synthesis and catabolism, and neurotransmitter synthesis. In these reactions, vitamin C functions to maintain the iron and copper atoms in the metalloenzymes in reduced state. Vitamin C also functions as an important antioxidant in the body.
In collagen synthesis, ascorbic acid functions in several hydroxylation reactions. The main role of ascorbic acid in these reactions relates to the iron cofactor enzymes. Prolyl hydroxylases and lysyl hydroxylase are examples of enzymes that need iron as their cofactor for hydroxylase activity. During the hydroxylation reactions, the iron cofactor in the enzymes is oxidized, and ascorbic acid is needed to function as reductant, thereby reducing iron back to its reduced state.
In carnitine synthesis, ascorbate is involved in hydroxylation reactions that require α-ketoglutarate and are almost identical to those for proline and lysine hydroxylations. Ascorbate is preferred as reducing agent in carnitine synthesis, even though other substances may be able to replace the ascorbate. Sufficient production of carnitine synthesis is essential for fat metabolism because carnitine is needed for transporting long-chain fatty acids from the cell cytoplasm into mitochondrial matrix where β-oxidation occurs.
Tyrosine is synthesized from the essential amino acid phenylalanine. Tyrosine synthesis requires hydroxylation of phenylalanine via the iron-dependent enzyme phenylalanine monooxygenase, which is also called hydroxylase. Vitamin C functions in the regeneration of tetrahydrobiopterin from dihydrobiopterin in the hydroxylation reaction of phenylalanine. Ascorbate also involved in catabolism of tyrosine which is also involved hydroxylation reaction. Ascorbate acts as reducing agent for the copper dependent enzyme para (p)-hydroxyphenylpyruvate hydroxylase, which is also called dioxygenase.
Ascorbate is involved in neurotransmitter synthesis through two Cu1+ dependent monooxygenase, which are dopamine monooxygenase and peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase. Examples of neurotransmitters produced that are required vitamin C are norepinephrine and serotonin.
Vitamin C functions in general capacity as reducing agent or electron donor and thereby has antioxidant activity. The role of vitamin C as an antioxidant in defending cells against oxidative damage due to free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are produced during normal cellular metabolism. As an antioxidant, ascorbate may react in blood or intracellularly with a variety of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and give the radical an electron in the form of hydrogen ion. In the process, ascorbate becomes oxidized.
Epidemiological studies provide evidence that intakes of fruit and vegetables are associated with decreased risk of certain cancers. The association between high vitamin C intakes and protective effect against cancers is generally stronger with cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach than with other cancers, such as of the lung, colon, pancreas, and cervix. In clinical trials, some studies have shown that the survival time in cancer patients could be prolonged through massive doses of vitamin C, whereas others have demonstrated no such success.
Besides that, there are many epidemiological and prospective studies report the association of increased vitamin C intakes or plasma vitamin C concentrations with decreased risk of heart disease. Low vitamin C status also has been found to be related to increased blood total cholesterol concentrations, while high plasma vitamin C concentrations have been associated with lower blood pressure and with higher plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, both of which are protective against heart disease.
Deficiency of vitamin C will cause scurvy. Other symptoms of vitamin C deficiency are anemia, atherosclerotic plaques, pinpoint hemorrhages, bone fragility, joint pain, poor wound healing, frequent infections, bleeding gums, loosened teeth, muscle degeneration and pain, hysteria, depression, rough skin and blotchy bruises. Toxicity symptoms of vitamin C include nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, headache, fatigue, insomnia, hot flashes, rashes, aggravation of gout symptoms, urinary tract problem and kidney stone.Niacinamide (Vitamin B3)
Niacinamide (Vitamin B3)
Niacin has two chemical structures, namely nicotinic acid and niacinamide (nicotinamide). The body can easily convert nicotinic acid to niacinamide, which is a major form of niacin in the blood. Niacin is fairly heat resistance. Niacin has two chemical structures, namely nicotinic acid and niacinamide (nicotinamide). The body can easily convert nicotinic acid to niacinamide, which is a major form of niacin in the blood. Niacin is fairly heat resistance.
Main function of niacin is act as a part of coenzymes NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADP (its phosphate form) that are used in energy metabolism. The major role of NADH, which is formed from NAD, is to transfer its electrons from metabolic intermediates through the electron transport chain, thereby producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP). NADPH, in contrast, acts as a reducing agent in many biosynthesis pathways such as fatty acid, cholesterol, and steroid hormone synthesis and also in other pathways.
The classic disease of severe niacin deficiency is pellagra, which is characterized by signs and symptoms such as pigmented rash, vomiting, constipation, or diarrhea, bright red tongue, depression, apathy, headache, fatigue and memory loss. The potential adverse effects of excess niacin intake include flushing, nausea and vomiting, liver toxicity, blurred vision and impaired glucose tolerance.Calcium d-pantothenate (Vitamin B5)
Calcium d-pantothenate (Vitamin B5)
Calcium d-pantothenate is salt form of pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5. Pantothenic acid is involved in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA), which is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids and membrane phospholipids, amino acids, steroid hormones, vitamins A and D, porphyrin and corrin rings, and neurotransmitters. Pantothenic acid is readily destroyed by freezing, canning, and refining process.
Pantothenic acid, as part of CoA and 4’-phosphopantetheine, participates in nutrient metabolism, including degradation reactions resulting in energy production and synthetic reactions for the production of many vital compounds. In addition, CoA serves to acetylate nutrients including sugars and proteins. Pantothenic acid, together with thiamin, riboflavin and niacin, involves in the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate to succinyl CoA that is involved in energy production as part of the Kreb cycle, and also is involved with the amino acid glycine in the first step of heme synthesis.
In lipid metabolism, CoA is important in the synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts, ketone bodies, fatty acids, and steroid hormones. Besides that, pantothenic acid as 4’-phosphopantetheine also functions as prosthetic group for acyl carrier protein (ACP). ACP acts as the acyl carrier in the synthesis of fatty acids and is a necessary component of the fatty acid synthase complex. Pantothenic acid as CoA also involved in the acetylation (donation of the long-chain fatty acids or acetate) of some proteins and sugars as well as some drugs. The acetylation of the proteins by CoA occurs posttranslational and in turn affects protein functions.
Pantothenic acid deficiency is rarely reported. Its symptoms include vomit, nausea, stomach cramp, insomnia, fatigue, depression, irritability, restlessness, apathy, hypoglycemia, increased sensitivity to insulin, numbness, muscle cramps and inability to walk.Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
Pyridoxine is one of the three forms of vitamin B6. The other two forms of vitamin B6 are pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. All three forms of the vitamin B6 can be converted to the coenzyme PLP (pyridoxal phosphate), which is active in amino acid metabolism. Vitamin B6 lose when heated, hence it is heat instable.
The functions of vitamin B6 are as part of coenzymes PLP (pyridoxal phosphate) and PMP (pyridoxamine phosphate), used in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, helps to convert tryptophan to niacin and to serotonin and also helps to make red blood cells. Besides as coenzymes, the vitamin also appears to moderate the effects of some steroid hormones.
Deficiency of vitamin B6 may shows symptoms such as scaly dermatitis, anemia, depression, confusion and convulsions. Toxicity of vitamin B6 shows symptoms ass depression, fatigue, irritability, headaches, nerve damage causing numbness and muscle weakness leading to an inability to walk and convulsions, and skin lesions. High intakes of pyridoxine also appear to cause degeneration of dorsal root ganglia in the spinal cord, loss of myelination, and degeneration of sensory fibers in the peripheral nerves.Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) functions as a coenzyme in numerous oxidation–reduction reactions in several metabolic pathways and in energy production. The primary form of the vitamin is as an integral component of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which functions as a catalyst for redox reactions in numerous metabolic pathways and in energy production. It is easily destroyed by ultraviolet light and irradiation. Therefore, it is not suitable to expose to light for long duration.
FMN and FAD function as coenzymes for a wide variety of oxidative enzyme system and remain bound to the enzymes during the oxidation-reduction reactions. These flavins can act as oxidizing agents because of their ability to accept a pair of hydrogen atoms.
Significant disease caused by deficiency of vitamin B2 is ariboflavinosis, with symptoms such as sore throat, cracks and redness at corners of mouth, painful, smooth, purplish red tongue, inflammation characterized by skin lesions covered with greasy scales.Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
Thiamin, also known as vitamin B1 and aneurin, functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of carbohydrates and branched-chain amino acid, and synthesis of pentoses and nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). It was the first B vitamin discovered. Prolong cooking can destroy this vitamin.
Thiamin, in form of thiamin diphosphate (TDP), functions as a coenzyme necessary for the oxidative carboxylation of pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, and the three branched-chain amino acid isoleucine, leucine and valine, in energy transformation. Inhibition of decarboxylation reactions of, especially, pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate prevents synthesis of ATP and of the acetyl CoA needed for the synthesis of, for example, fatty acids, cholesterol, and other important compounds.
Thiamin is needed for synthesis of pentoses and NADPH. Thiamin, as TDP, functions as loosely bound prosthetic group of transketolase, a key cytosolic enzyme in the hexose monophosphate shunt. The shunt is essential for the generation of pentoses for nucleic acids synthesis and NADPH, which is needed for fatty acid synthesis.
In nerve membranes, thiamin, in form of thiamin triphosphate (TTP), functions to activate ion (specifically chloride) transport. Thiamin also involved in nerve impulse transmission via regulation of sodium channels.
Deficiency of vitamin B1 will cause beriberi, with symptoms such as wet, with edema, and dry, with muscle wasting. Other symptoms of deficiency of this vitamin include enlarged heart, cardiac failure, muscular weakness, apathy, poor short-term memory, confusion, irritability, anorexia and weight loss. Excessive thiamin has been associated with headache, convulsion, cardiac arrhythmia, and anaphylactic shock.Retinyl Acetate (Vitamin A)
Retinyl Acetate (Vitamin A)
Retinyl acetate is a naturally-occurring fatty acid ester form of retinol (vitamin A) with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities.
Vitamin A is recognized as being essential for vision as well as for cellular differentiation, growth, reproduction, bone development, and immune system actions. Vitamin A is an important component of dark-adapted retina, rhodopsin, which is an essential eye pigment in retina that is light sensitive.
Besides, vitamin A in form of retinoic acid is needed by epithelial cells for cell differentiation. Retinoic acid helps maintain both the normal structure and the function of epithelial cells. In addition, vitamin A appears to direct the synthesis of keratins, and also directs differentiation of squamous epithelial keratinizing cells into mucus-secreting cells.
Deficiency of vitamin A will lead to hypovitaminosis A. The symptoms of deficiency including night blindness, corneal drying, triangular gray spots on eye, softening of the cornea, and corneal degeneration and blindness; impaired immunity, plugging of hair follicles with keratin, forming white lumps.Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)
Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)
Folate or folic acid is a B vitamin that functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of nucleic and amino acids. Folate is a generic term that includes both the naturally occurring form of the vitamin (food folate or pteroylpolyglutamates) and the monoglutamate form (folic acid or pteroylmonoglutamic acid), which is used in fortified foods and dietary supplements. It is easily destroyed by heat and oxygen.
Folic acid functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of nucleic and amino acids, therefore important in new cell formation. Folic acid, in form of tetrahydrofolate (THF), functions as coenzyme in both mitochondria and cytosol to accept one-carbon groups typically generated from amino acid metabolism. THF deriviates then serve as donors of one-carbon units in a variety of synthetic reactions, such as dispensable amino acid synthesis and purine and pyrimidine synthesis.
Folic acid also involved in DNA synthesis, specifically purine and pyrimidine synthesis, and nucleotide metabolism, in form of THF.
Deficiency of folic acid has several symptoms including anemia (large cell type); smooth, red tongue, mental confusion, weakness, fatigue, irritability, headache, shortness of breath and elevated homocysteine level. Toxicity of folic acid may include insomnia, malaise, irritability and gastrointestinal distress.References
Gropper, S., Smith, J. L. & Groff, J. L. (2005). Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Linus Pauling Institute. (2001). The Bioavailability of Different Forms of Vitamin C. Retrieved on June 23, 2014, from http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/ss01/bioavailability.html.
Ministry of Health, Malaysia. (2005). Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysia. Putrajaya: National Coordinating Committee on Food and Nutrition, Ministry of Health, Malaysia.
Otten, J. J., Hellwig, J. P. & Mayers, J. P. (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient . USA: Institute of Medicine of the National Academic.
Whitney, E. & Rolfes, S. R. (2008). Understanding Nutrition, 11th Edition. USA: Thompson Learning, Inc.